This thread contains any errata concerning incorrect or incomplete information in the A+ Exam Cram 5th Edition. It also has some additions to the text. If you find anything in the book that you believe is incorrect, please Contact Me.

Notes beyond the book: The A+ exams are always changing. Every now and then I add some bits of information I believe you should know for the exam. Be sure to study these:

  • Ping switches:
  • -? displays the help file. This will give you a list of all the switches also known as options. Example: ping -?
  • -t starts a continuous ping. Example: ping -t
  • -n sends a certain amount of pings depending on what number you select. Example: ping -n 20. This will send 20 ping echos to that address.
  • -l sends a standard ping but with a larger buffer size. Standard pings send 32 bytes of data per echo. This allows you to increase that size, for example: ping -l 100.
  • In most cases, the switch (option) can go before or after the IP address. I normally put the switch afterwards as it makes for faster typing when running multiple commands with different switches for the same IP address.
  • Remote Desktop port number: The Remote Desktop port number is 3389. It is also known as RDP and Terminal Services.
  • NetBEUI: A network protocol used by older versions of Microsoft operating systems such as Windows 95/98, and Windows NT. It stands for NetBIOS Extended User Interface. It uses computer names to identify other computers on the network, does not use IP addresses, and therefore is not routable to other networks. This protocol is deprecated and is not often found in networks.
  • Autochk.exe: This is an executable (and system process) that checks the integrity of an NTFS volume in Windows. It enables a Windows operating system to revert core system settings to their original state. Autochk is similar to chkdsk but autochk runs during system bootup (after a cold boot), whereas chkdsk will run in a DOS box or in the recovery console. Autochk cannot run within the command-line. Autochk will be initiated if: 1. Chkdsk cannot gain exclusive access to the volume, 2. If you try to run chkdsk on the boot volume, and 3. If the volume to be checked is "dirty". For example, if a system hangs, and has open files, those files are considered to be dirty, and therefore the volume that houses them is also dirty, and is checked by autochk after a hard reset otherwise known as a cold boot.

Tear Card (Cram Sheet): Some of the first printing books' Cram Sheets are slightly glued to the first page of the book. If you are careful, you can still remove the Cram Sheet (if you want to) pretty easily. If you fold the perforation first, you should be able to tear the Cram Sheet out fairly easily without removing the first page of the book. If you have any difficulty, consider using a hair dryer and blowing hot air at the glue on the crease behind the Cram Sheet. This can help to loosen the card from the first page.

Page 29 PCI bullet alteration. The text in the 5th sentence says "The most common PCI cards...". To be accurate, this should say "PCI version 2.1 cards..."

Page 33, Table 2.1. PCIe Frequencies: There is some incorrect information regarding PCI Express frequencies. Version 1 should be 2.5 GHz, Version 2 should be 5 GHz, and Version 3 wasn't fully ratified as of the writing of the book (and won't be until at least 2nd quarter of 2010) but it is supposed to be 8 GHz. Effectively, all the PCIe frequencies listed in Table 2.1 are listed as half of their actual rate.

Page 38, Question 4."PCIe" should read "PCIe x16" in the question and the explanation. As I stated on page 31, keep in mind that x16 and x4 slots are controlled by the MCH (or northbridge), and x1 slots are controlled by the ICH (or southbridge).

Page 57, 1st bullet: "Motherboard four clock speed" should simply be "Motherboard clock speed".

Page 58. 64-bit CPU memory limitations: In the fourth paragraph, last sentence, the book states that a 64-bit CPU can access a maximum of 1 TB RAM, which was correct for Windows Server 2003 (64-bit), but that number is already outdated; Windows Server 2008 64-bit can use up to 2 TB depending on the version of the OS. Also, that last sentence of the paragraph isn't really accurate given the context of the rest of paragraph. The paragraph is speaking more to the CPU hardware itself, not the OS running on the computer. So to be more clear, replace that reference to 1 TB with the following: Currently, the 64-bit CPU itself can access up to 256 TB of RAM, which can possibly be extended as far as 4 petabytes (PB), but that extension isn't currently used. However, Windows XP 64-bit and Vista 64-bit are "limited" to 128 GB max pending on the version. Some Windows 7 64-bit versions can go as high as 192 GB.

Pg. 60, Level 2 bullet, 1st sentence: Phrasing: The term "built in to" should read "built on to" for accuracy. Although some people will consider "integrated" L2 cache to be "in" the CPU, it should not be confused with L1 cache which is actually built in to the CPU core.

Pg. 67, Question 2: Answer D "Celeron" could be a possible answer here. Newer Celeron processors are 64-bit, whereas older Celeron processors are 32-bit. It is unlikely that you will see a question similar to this one on the exam, but if you do, remember that E-series and newer processors are 64-bit. Older Celeron processors are 32-bit.

Pg. 87, It's not the Quantity, It's the Quality. The article shows 4,000 MB/s as the additional amount that can be transferred. This should read 3,200 MB/s.

Pg. 117, Table 5.1. ATX 12V 2.0: The table leaves out the fact that most new ATX 12V 2.0 (or higher) power supplie2s will have an additional 4-pin power connector that connects to the motherboard separate from the P1 connector. An example of this is shown in the following figure:

Page 122, Installing the power supply, and page 47 Installing Motherboards. Case connectors: These sections don't really talk much about the case connectors (e.g. power switch, reset switch, hard drive activity LED, etc...). Some people refer to these as sub-mini connectors or case/motherboard connectors. An example of the connections on the motherboard is shown below. When connecting these, the colored wire normally goes to positive (+) if necessary. Some of the case connectors can be connected either way and it won't make a difference. But connectors like the power LED and the HDD activity LED need to be connected properly in order for the LEDs to display. Quite often the motherboard will be color coded, and the fold out instruction sheet will show exactly where to plug in each case connector, and the case connectors themselves are normally labeled.

Pg. 135. ATA, Table 6.1: The table does not show that ATA-7 not only defines Ultra ATA/133 but also defines SATA 1.5 Gbit/s. ATA-8 is not shown which is still being ratified but it will define SATA 3.0 Gbit/s.

Pg. 136, Last paragraph, 2nd sentence: "SATA 3.0" should say "SATA 2.x" as shown in the following table. Other references to SATA 3.0 on page 137 should say "SATA 2.x" or if you prefer "SATA 2.0".

Pg. 154. Blu-Ray additions: As the Blu-Ray standard progresses we have seen some changes to the specifications. The following capacities are current as of 7/2010. Key: SS = single sided, SL = single-layer, DL = dual-layer. Standard size disc 12 cm SS SL disc: 25 GB 12 cm SS DL disc: 50 GB Currently, additional layers can be added to discs beyond DL to increase the capacity to 100 or 200 GB. Mini-disc 8 cm SS SL disc: 7.8 GB 8 cm SS DL disc: 15.6 GB

Chapter 7 in general. Backing up before upgrades: When upgrading to Windows 7, Vista (or XP in the rare case), it is extremely important to back up any necessary data-prior to starting the install. This is just a reminder to all you readers!

Pg. 236. Vista hibernation: The text shows that the hibernation option can be added to the shut down options area of the Start menu by using the command powercfg.exe/hibernate on. This is incomplete. On most systems, to have hibernation show up, a user would also have to turn off Hybrid sleep in the Power Options window. To do this, navigate to Start > Control Panel > Power Options, then select Change plan settings, and click Change advanced power settings. This brings up the Power Options window. Next, expand Sleep, and expand Hybrid sleep, then change the Hybrid sleep option to off. If the Hibernate option still does not show up in the Shut down area of the Start menu, verify that you have typed the command properly within the Command Prompt (and that you are running the Command Prompt as an administrator.) Restart the computer if necessary.

Pg. 248, Table 8.2, 6th row: The phrase "it redirects to the Users folder." should read "this protected folder redirects to the Users folder."

Pg. 249, Bootmgr bullet: "Windows loader program" probably wasn't a good phrase to use as it can cause confusion between Bootmgr and Winload.exe. Let me summarize those two files:

- Bootmgr is the Windows Boot Manager program. It is the first file to load on the hard drive and is initiated by the BIOS. It takes care of reading the BCD and displaying the OS menu (if you have one). So it is responsible for starting a particular OS. It is outside of the OS (as it would have to be) so it can call on one of multiple versions of Windows. It can be shared among various versions of Windows and even other OSes if configured properly (with the use of EFI). Other than the word "loader", the description of bootmgr on page 249 is fairly accurate*.
- Winload.exe is the Windows Boot Loader program (to answer your question). Every installed OS includes this file, so it is within the OS. This program loads the kernel file (ntoskrnl.exe) of the particular OS that was selected from the Bootmgr program. Bootmgr does indeed invoke winload.exe for the OS that was selected.
- Note: If a system is in hibernate mode, Winresume.exe is initiated by the Bootmgr/BCD instead of Winload being initiated by Bootmgr.

Couple points:
- * Bootmgr and Winload.exe share the responsibilities of the predecessor NTLDR, although Bootmgr has a larger percentage of those responsibilities.
- Bootmgr switches CPU operation from real mode to protected mode, which could be 32-bit or 64-bit, depending on what version of the OS you installed. Among other things, this allows the Bootmgr to access all memory (not just limited to 1 MB).
Here are a couple of links for more information from the source:

Pg. 253, Table 8.3. Partitioning: The table doesn't speak to Vista's default action when creating secondary partitions, that is it makes them as primary partitions by default, as opposed to Windows XP where you have the option to make primary or extended partitions.

Pg. 265, Note at top of page: Another tool you can use to find out the SP level besides msinfo32.exe is the winver command. This can be run in the Run prompt, in the search box, or in the Command Prompt. Either way, it will bring up the "About Windows" window. You can also discern SP levels directly in the Command Prompt. For example, if you open the Command Prompt in Windows 7 and see on the top line "Microsoft Windows [Version 6.1.7600]" then no SP is installed. But if you do this on Windows 7 with SP1 you will see "Microsoft Windows [Version 6.1.7601]". Note the difference in the last number. You can also see this by simply typing ver. You can also find out the OS name, version, and SP level with the following syntax:

systeminfo|findstr /B /C:"OS Name" /C:"OS Version"

Note the pipe symbol between systeminfo and findstr. Also, the text within the quotes is case sensitive.

In this example, the resulting output on a Windows 7 Ultimate OS with SP1 installed would be:

OS Name: Microsoft Windows 7 Ultimate

OS Version: 6.1.7601 Service Pack 1 Build 7601

For the Version/SP level only, omit the following:   /C:"OS Name"

Pg. 268, Cram Quiz Question 4 Answer A: Should read Start > All Programs > Windows Update. A should be the correct answer and the path should read as this in the explanation on the next page as well. The text earlier in the chapter shows this path correctly.

Pg. 291. Device Manager: The caption for Figure 10.4 describes a disabled device, but it appears that the red x indicating a disabled 1394 Net Adapter device is not visible in the figure (see figure below). Also. the text speaks to how Windows XP will display a red x if a device is disabled, however, it should be noted that Windows Vista will show a down arrow (shown in second figure below) instead of a red x if the device is disabled. This is similar to the down arrow seen when a service is stopped. - Windows XP Device Manager with red X on the 1394 Net Adapter:

Windows Vista Device Manager with down arrow on a sound device:

Pg. 341. Terminology - Explanation 9 on page 341 should specify that the Power Options window is the Win7/Vista name (and when drilling down into the individual settings, the Power Options dialog box is used). In XP it is known as the Power Options Properties dialog box (or Power Options Properties window). Don't forget that the terms "window" and "dialog box" might be used interchangeably on the exam.

Pg. 376. S/PDIF: The text speaks to optical S/PDIF connectors but neglects to mention that there are also coaxial S/PDIF connectors, more common to external audio devices.

Pg. 382. USB: The book doesn't really show the different Safely Remove icons for Windows Vista and Windows XP. Each of these are displayed below.

Windows Vista:

Windows XP:

Pg. 430. Typo: First sentence: "Sockers" should read "Sockets".

Pg. 454. Typo: Third sentence: "10bps" should read "10Mbps".

Pg. 503. Antistatic bags: The third bullet "Use antistatic bags" says to either place adapter cards in or on the bag when not in use. The best procedure for this is to leave the card "in" the bag, not on the bag.

Page 565, question 62 alteration: To be more accurate, the question should say "activity light", and not "link light". The explanation alludes to this on page 581.

Page 583, question 75 typo. The answers listed should be A and D, not A and C.

Page 591, question 22. Although you should know the command listed as the correct answer for Windows XP, a newer command: netsh advfirewall firewall is recommended on Windows Vista or higher and Windows Server 2008 or higher. However, this new command will not show the open ports on the computer. Instead, the netstat command is an easy solution. Of course, other third-party tools are available for this as well.

Disc. If you have any questions about questions on the disc, please contact me. They are randomized, and so I can't put a number to any particular question. There was an issue with SATA in the previous edition of the book. Just in case any questions about SATA slipped through the cracks, remember your SATA naming conventions -

SATA 1.x - Known as SATA 1.5 Gb/s (150 MB/s)

SATA 2.x - Known as SATA 3 Gb/s (300 MB/s)

SATA 3.x - Known as SATA 6 Gb/s (600 MB/s)

The only example I know of is the following question:

What is the maximum data transfer rate of a SATA 3.0 Hard Disk Drive?

The answer should be 600 MB/s, not 300 MB/s.

For more information on SATA, see this link.

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